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IPPC-Directive 96/61/EC

Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control

Reference Document on Best Available Techniques (BREF) in the Smitheries and Foundries Industry (SFI)

Smitheries were excluded from the scope of the BREF since no European smitheries were reported which met the conditions stated in Annex I 2.3.(b) of IPPC Directive 2008/1/EC. The BREF document therefore only discusses foundry processes. Cadmium, titanium and precious metals foundries, as well as bell casting and art casting foundries were also excluded on capacity grounds. Continuous casting (into sheets and slabs) has already been covered in the BREF documents related to iron and steel production and non-ferrous metal industries, and therefore, it is not dealt with in this document. In covering non-ferrous metals in this document, the process is considered to start with the melting of ingots and internal scrap or with liquid metal.

From a process point of view, the following foundry process steps are covered:

• pattern making
• storage and handling of raw materials
• melting and metal treatment
• mould and core production, and moulding techniques
• casting or pouring and cooling
• shake-out
• finishing
• heat treatment.

The foundry industry is a major player in the recycling of metals. Steel, cast iron and aluminium scrap is remelted into new products. Most possible negative environmental effects of foundries are related to the presence of a thermal process and the use of mineral additives. Environmental effects therefore are mainly related to the exhaust and off-gases and to the re-use or disposal of mineral residues.

Emissions to air are the key environmental concern. The foundry process generates (metal-laden) mineral dusts, acidifying compounds, products of incomplete combustion and volatile organic carbons. Dust is a major issue, since it is generated in all process steps, in varying types and compositions. Dust is emitted from metal melting, sand moulding, casting and finishing. Any dust generated may contain metal and metal oxides.

With the entry into force of the Industrial Emissions Directive (IED, 2010/75/EU), the IPPC Directive is no covered by IED Directive. The IED is a major environmental legislation which regulates around 50000 installations in the EU dealing with a wide range of industrial and agricultural activities.

Revision of the SFI BREF is announced for Q1/2018.

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